Internal Marketing: A Model for Implementation and Development - Núm. 17-1, Enero 2019 - Dimensión Empresarial - Libros y Revistas - VLEX 758288369

Internal Marketing: A Model for Implementation and Development

Autor:Maria Cristina Bohnenberger, Serje Schmidt, Cláudio Damacena, Francisco Julio Batle Lorente

Internal marketing (IM) is increasingly recognized as a tool to institutionalize organizational values, improve employee commitment and enhance customer satisfaction. Its implementation and development, however, have not been sufficiently supported by the literature. A theoretical model would contribute to its conceptual development and facilitate its application in the organization, enabling to... (ver resumen completo)

Maria Cristina Bohnenbergerii
Serje Schmidtiii
Cláudio Damacenaiv
Francisco Julio Batle Lorentev
Bohnenberger, Maria C.; Schmidt, Serje; Damacena, Cláudio & Batle-Lorente, Francisco Julio (2019). Internal marketing: a
model for implementation and development. Dimensión Empresarial, 17(1), 7-22. DOI: ID:
Internal marketing (IM) is increasingly recognized as a tool to institutionalize organizational values, improve employee
commitment and enhance customer satisfaction. Its implementation and development have not been sufficiently supported
by the literature. A theoretical model would contribute to its conceptual development and facilitate its application in the
organization, enabling to achieve strategic objectives such as customer orientation, organizational commitment, and
organization performance. This paper proposes a theoretical model for implementing and developing IM in organizations. It
identifies the evolution and the different theoretical approaches, such as: (a) the employee as a customer of the organization;
(b) IM as a process; and (c) the culture of external customer orientation. The proposed model considers IM as a path for
performing the strategic management of human resources through the marketing perspective.
Keywords: internal marketing, customer orientation, internal customer.
El marketing interno (IM) se reconoce cada vez más como una herramienta para institucionalizar los valores de la
organización, mejorar el compromiso de los empleados y mejorar la satisfacción del cliente. Su implementación y desarrollo
no han sido suficientemente respaldados por la literatura. Un modelo teórico contribuiría a su desarrollo conceptual y
facilitaría su aplicación en la organización, permitiéndole alcanzar objetivos estratégicos tales como la orientación al cliente,
el compromiso organizacional y el desempeño de la organización. Este artículo propone un modelo teórico para implementar
y desarrollar IM en organizaciones. Identifica la evolución y los diferentes enfoques teóricos, tales como: (a) el empleado
como cliente de la organización; (b) IM como un proceso; y (c) la cultura de la orientación al cliente externo. El modelo
propuesto considera la mensajería instantánea como un camino para realizar la gestión estratégica de los recursos humanos a
través de la perspectiva de comercialización.
Palabras clave: marketing interno, orientación al cliente, cliente interno.
O marketing interno (MI) é cada vez mais reconhecido como uma ferramenta para institucionalizar os valores organizacionais,
melhorar o comprometimento dos funcionários e aumentar a satisfação do cliente. Sua implementação e desenvolvimento
não foram suportados pela literatura. Um modelo teórico contribuiria para o seu desenvolvimento conceitual e facilitaria sua
aplicação na organização, possibilitando atingir objetivos estratégicos como orientação ao cliente, comprometimento
organizacional e desempenho organizacional. Este artigo reflexivo propõe um modelo teórico para implementar e
desenvolver IM nas organizações. Identifica a evolução e as diferentes abordagens teóricas, tais como: (a) o empregado como
cliente da organização; (b) IM como um processo; e (c) a cultura de orientação externa ao cliente. As considerações do modelo
proposto IM como caminho para a realização da gestão estratégica de recursos humanos através da perspectiva de marketing.
Palavras-chave: marketing interno, orientação ao cliente, cliente interno.
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Many organizations and researchers have recognized the
importance of internal marketing (IM) in increasing
employees’ commitment with the organizations and
customer satisfaction (L. Berry & Parasuraman, 1992;
Conduit, Matanda, & Mavondo, 2014; Grönroos, 1990;
Kotler, 1998; Lee, Chen, & Lee, 2015; Lings & Greenley,
2009; Pitt & Foreman, 1998; Shiu & Yu, 2010). The
concern of the marketing department with consumer
satisfaction has been largely addressed (Oliver, 2010), and
IM is one of the main tools to institutionalize marketing
orientation, (Conduit & Mavondo, 2001; Ferdous,
Herington, & Merrilees, 2013; Ferdous & Polonsky, 2014;
Lings & Greenley, 2009; Zeithaml, Parasuraman, & Berry,
Originally, IM was developed to achieve external
customers satisfaction (L. Berry & Parasuraman, 1992;
Flipo, 1986; Grönroos, 1990; Kotler, 1998). It is possible
to recognize IM as a strategy to practice organizational
beliefs and focus on the market. Studies have also
demonstrated that IM have an impact on further
dimensions such as performance (Lings & Greenley,
2009), employee satisfaction (Shiu & Yu, 2010), and
organizational commitment (Caruana & Calleya, 1998;
Yang, Huang, & Wei, 2015), among others.
Despite these advantages, few studies have addressed a
suitable conceptual-empirical structure for IM
implementation and development. For example, few
researchers have mentioned the activities involved in this
process (Conduit & Mavondo, 2001; Grönroos, 1990;
Rafig & Ahmed, 2000), the responsibility involved in the
implementation of these activities (Conduit et al., 2014;
Flipo, 1986; Lowry, Borna, & Inks, 2007; Rafiq, Ahmed,
Rafig, & Ahmed, 1993), or assessment measures (Foreman
& Money, 1995; Lings & Brooks, 1998; Weber, 2015).
There are still those who indicate that this theme needs
further theoretical and empirical discussion (Cassundé,
Ferreira Cassundé Junior, Alencar de Farias, & Costa de
Mendonça, 2014). IM actions may also create a recursive
movement between internal and external stakeholders’
satisfaction, helping establish an organizational culture
linked to its strategic positioning. Therefore, it is believed
that the exploitation of this topic deserves attention.
The main goal of the present study is to propose a
theoretical model for the implementation and
development of IM in organizations. It offers a
contribution to the conceptual development in the
academic environment and facilitate its application in the
practitioners’ organizational context. The proposed model
is focused on the direct application of IM in organizations,
enabling the organization to achieve strategic objectives,
such as orientation toward the customers, contribution to
the organizational commitment, and improvement in
organization performance.
The study is structured into four sections, namely: (1)
retrospective view of IM, (2) theoretical approaches, (3)
IM coordination and practices, (4) IM models and (5) the
proposal of a model for implementation and development.
Internal marketing is an interdisciplinary topic that has
been investigated by marketing experts and, with less
intensity, by human resources experts. The first studies
were based on a growing concern with better personnel
management and customer services. Berry, Hensen and
Burke (1976) addressed the topic when, for the first time,
it was related to the production of high quality services.
For these authors, IM is concerned with making available
internal products (jobs) that satisfy the needs of a vital
internal market (employees) while satisfying the objectives
of the organization(Berry et al. 1976, p. 8).
Berry (1981) was the first author who referred to
employees as internal customers. Flipo (1986) emphasized
the lack of knowledge about the topic and conceptualize it
as the strength that marketing executives have, in order to

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